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Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MD

What Is Polycystic Ovary Syndrome?

Polycystic (pronounced: pol-ee-SISS-tik) ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common health problem that can affect teen girls and young women. It can cause irregular menstrual periods, make periods heavier, or even make periods stop.

What Causes Polycystic Ovary Syndrome?

Doctors can't say for sure what causes it, but PCOS seems to be related to an imbalance in a girl's hormones.

Both girls and guys produce sex hormones, but in different amounts. In girls, the ovaries make the hormones estrogen and progesterone, and also androgens. These hormones regulate a girl's menstrual cycle and ovulation (when the egg is released). Androgens are sometimes called "male hormones," but the female body also makes them. In girls with PCOS, the ovaries make higher than normal amounts of androgens.

Research also suggests that women with PCOS may produce too much insulin, which signals their ovaries to release extra male hormones.

PCOS seems to run in families too, so if someone in your family has it, you might be more likely to develop it.

What Happens in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome?

The higher amounts of androgens that happen in PCOS can interfere with egg development and release. Instead of the eggs maturing, sometimes cysts (little sacs filled with liquid) develop. Then, instead of an egg being released during ovulation as in a normal period, the cysts build up in the ovaries. Polycystic ovaries can become enlarged. Girls with PCOS are not ovulating or releasing an egg each month, so many have irregular or missed periods.

What Problems Can PCOS Cause?

PCOS that's not treated properly can put a girl at risk for lots of problems. Girls with PCOS are more likely to:

  • become infertile (be unable to have children)
  • have excessive hair growth
  • get acne or have their acne get worse
  • become obese
  • develop diabetes, heart disease, or high blood pressure
  • have abnormal bleeding from the uterus

There's no cure for PCOS, but it can be treated. The most important step is diagnosing the condition, because getting treatment for PCOS reduces a girl's chances of developing serious problems.

What Are the Signs of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome?

A key sign of PCOS is irregular periods or missed periods. The effects of PCOS on the ovaries can make a girl stop ovulating. But because it can take up to 2 years after a first period for any girl's menstrual cycle to become regular, it can be hard to recognize missed periods as a sign of PCOS.

Imbalanced hormone levels can cause changes in a girl's entire body, not just her ovaries. So doctors also look for these other signs of PCOS:

  • weight gain, obesity, or difficulty maintaining a normal weight, especially when the extra weight is concentrated around the waist
  • a condition called hirsutism (pronounced: HER-suh-tiz-um), where a girl grows extra hair on her face, chest, abdomen, nipple area, or back (a little of this is normal for most girls, though)
  • thinning hair on the head (alopecia)
  • acne and clogged pores
  • darkened, thickened skin around the neck, armpits, or breasts (this is called acanthosis nigricans)
  • high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or diabetes mellitus (high blood sugar levels)

Girls who show certain signs of puberty early — such as developing underarm or pubic hair before age 8 — may be at greater risk for PCOS later on.

How Is PCOS Diagnosed?

If your doctor thinks you might have PCOS, he or she may refer you to a or an for a diagnosis.

The gynecologist or endocrinologist will ask about your concerns and symptoms, your past health, your family's health, any medicines you're taking, any allergies you have, and other issues. He or she will also ask you lots of questions specifically about your period and its regularity. This is called the medical history.

Your doctor also will do a physical exam, which includes checking your weight, and checking especially for physical signs such as acne, hair growth, and darkened skin. The doctor might do a gynecologic exam to rule out other possible causes of your symptoms, but this is not always necessary for diagnosis.

Doctors sometimes order blood tests to diagnose PCOS or other conditions, such as thyroid or other ovarian or gland problems. These tests measure androgen, insulin, and other hormone levels. The results can help doctors decide on the best treatment.

Your doctor might order a pelvic ultrasound (a safe, painless test that uses sound waves to make images of the pelvis) to check your ovaries for cysts or other problems. Because cysts aren't always visible, this test isn't always done.

Early diagnosis and treatment for PCOS are important because the condition can put girls at risk for long-term problems. Getting treated for PCOS is also a good idea if you want to have a baby someday — PCOS often causes infertility if it's not treated. But when PCOS is treated properly, many women with the condition have healthy babies.

Still, many girls with PCOS can get pregnant if they have sex. So if you're sexually active, use condoms every time you have sex to avoid becoming pregnant or getting a sexually transmitted disease (STD). (Of course, this is important whether you have PCOS or not.)

How Is Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Treated?

There's no cure for PCOS, but there are several ways to treat and manage it.

Diet and Exercise

If a girl is overweight or obese, a doctor will recommend that she lose weight. Weight loss can be very effective in easing many of the health conditions associated with PCOS, such as high blood pressure and diabetes. Sometimes weight loss alone can get hormone levels back to normal, making many symptoms disappear or become less severe.

Your doctor or a registered dietitian can look at your food intake and your exercise and activity to create a weight-loss program for you. Exercise is a great way to help combat weight gain and reduce bloating, another symptom girls with PCOS can have.


Sometimes doctors prescribe medicines to treat PCOS. A doctor might first have a girl try birth control pills to help control hormone levels in her body and regulate her menstrual cycle. Birth control pills may help control acne and excessive hair growth in some girls, but they don't work for everyone.

Antiandrogens also are sometimes used to treat PCOS. These medicines counter the effects of excess androgens on a girl's body, and can help clear up skin and hair growth problems.

A diabetes medicine, metformin, can lower insulin levels. In some girls with PCOS, it can help control ovulation and androgen levels. This can make a girl's menstrual cycles more regular. Some girls and women treated with metformin also have weight loss and lowering of high blood pressure.

How Can I Cope With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome?

Having PCOS can be hard on a girl's self-esteem. Fortunately, there are things you can do to reduce the physical symptoms and take care of the emotional side of living with PCOS.

Medicines used to treat PCOS will slow down or stop excessive hair growth for many girls. Also, different types of products can help get rid of hair where it's not wanted. Depilatory creams can gently remove facial hair on the upper lip or chin. Follow the instructions carefully so you don't develop a rash or allergic reaction.

Tweezing and waxing done at home or at a salon can manage excess hair growth. A dermatologist (a doctor who specializes in skin problems) or qualified hair removal specialist can use electrolysis and laser surgery treatments for long-term removal of unwanted hair, but they're more expensive.

Treatment with birth control pills or antiandrogens might make severe acne better. If it doesn't, your doctor may refer you to a dermatologist for treatment. A dermatologist can also recommend medicines to reduce skin darkening or discoloration, and to prevent hair growth.

Some girls with PCOS may become depressed, in which case it may help to talk to a therapist or other mental health professional. Talking with other teens and women with PCOS is a great way to share information about treatment and get support. Ask your doctor or search online for a local support group.

Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MD
Date reviewed: January 2017